WW-06318-GO Reviewed 2008
If you drive a tractor, combine, hay wagon or other implements of husbandry on public roads, you must follow state laws designed to ensure your safety and that of other drivers. This flyer gives basic information on Minnesota's laws about lighting, marking, weights and sizes for implements of husbandry. It also lists additional safety practices recommended by agricultural safety experts.
An implement of husbandry, according to state law, is any vehicle designed or adapted exclusively for agricultural, horticultural or livestock operations, or for lifting and carrying an implement of husbandry.
Any towed vehicle which meets the definition above is an implement of husbandry. This includes wagon trailers and implement trailers used in a farming operation.
Most state laws about safe operation of farm vehicles and implements of husbandry are in Minnesota Statute 169. The information in this flyer is based on this statute. You can look up the complete law in any library.
A driver's license is not required for operating an implement of husbandry. License plates and vehicle registration are not required for implements of husbandry, although if the implement is being towed by a truck, the truck must have a license plate. A farm trailer with a gross weight of 10,000 pounds or more pulled by a car, pickup or truck must have a registration plate.
An implement of husbandry which is driven or towed faster than 25 miles per hour must be equipped with brakes if it exceeds 6,000 pounds gross weight. All implements manufactured or sold after January 1, 1994 with a manufacturer's recommended capacity of more than 24,000 pounds must be equipped with brakes. Surge brakes capable of controlling, stopping and holding a vehicle will be acceptable.
Implements of husbandry that exceed 6,000 pounds gross weight and are not equipped with brakes may not be driven or towed at more than 25 miles per hour.
Implements of husbandry must stay to the right of the center line except when passing or if preceded by a registered motor vehicle equipped with operating front and rear hazard warning lights.
Towed implements of husbandry must be equipped with safety chains except when hitched to the towing vehicle with a fifth-wheel and kingpin assembly, or a hitch pin and retainer that prevents accidental unhitching.
All implements of husbandry designed for operation at speeds of 25 miles per hour or less must be marked with a slow-moving vehicle emblem. The emblem is a fluorescent yellow-orange triangle with a dark red reflective border which conforms to standards set by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (Standard S276). The emblem must be visible 600 feet from the rear of the implement.
An alternate SMV emblem that is black with a white reflective border may be used, with a special permit from the Department of Public Safety. The alternate emblem cannot be used from sunset to sunrise, or at any time when visibility is impaired.
Towed implements which obscure the towing vehicle's SMV emblem must display an emblem of their own.
Chains, ropes or cables used for towing farm implements or vehicles must be marked with a flag. The flag should be red, white, orange or yellow, and at least 12 inches square.
Amber flashing hazard lights are required at all times on self-propelled implements manufactured since January 1, 1970. Other lights specified below are required on implements of husbandry (regardless of manufacture date) from sunset to sunrise, while it's raining, or any time visibility is impaired. Although not required by law, lights used during daylight will enhance equipment visibility on the road.
Lights on self-propelled implements must include at least:
Self propelled implements may also display a rotating amber beacon.
Lights on towed farm implements must include at least:
With some exceptions, implements of husbandry are exempt from size limitations, if:
With some exceptions, farm implements are exempt from weight limitations. However, the weight on any wheel of an implement must not exceed 600 pounds per inch of tire width. For example, a single tire 10 inches wide can carry a load of 6,000 pounds, or 24,000 pounds total for a four-wheeled implement.
State laws on safe operation of farm vehicles are lengthy and sometimes complicated. This flyer lists basic and general rules that apply to most situations. It does not detail the exceptions that may occasionally apply to you. For complete details, consult the Department of Public Safety, State Patrol Division, 1 (800) 475-7555.
The American Society of Agricultural Engineers and other safety organizations suggest:
Figure 1. Diagram shows proper placement of emblems, lights and reflectors according to Minnesota statutes.
In accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, this material is available in alternative formats upon request. Please contact your University of Minnesota Extension office or the Extension Store at (800) 876-8636.